زمان حال کامل (ماضی نقلی)
الف- اگر عملی در گذشته در وقت نامعلومی انجام شده باشد حال کامل است یعنی اگرجمله ای قید زمان نداشته باشد ماضی نقلی است.
و اگر عملی در گذشته انجام شده و آن عمل یا اثرش تا به امروز وجود دارد از حال کامل استفاده میکنیم
و یا برای بیان تجربیات از زمان حال کامل استفاده میکنیم.
She has gone.
I have been to Austria.
I have lost my jewellery.
ب- اگر عملی درگذشته چند مرتبه تکرار شده باشد فعل آن جمله ماضی نقلی است یعنی اگر درآخر جمله کلمه ی (times)(مرتبه ها) وجود داشته باشد فعل آن جمله ماضی نقلی است و همچنین قیود(this year,twice- this week)
You have read that book many times.
I have seen that girl three times.
I have been abroad two times.
Mehrdad has worked in the bank for 8 years.
We have had the same house for 19 years.
They have seen that film six times.
It has happened several times already.
She has visited them frequently.
We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
I have worked hard this week.
It has rained a lot this year.
I haven't played rugby since I left university.
She left London ten years ago, and I haven't seen her since.
The factory has been here since the 1970s.
It was exactly five years since her father had died.
Since the end of the war over five thousand prisoners have been released.
I left school in 1995, and since then I've lived in London.
I have been in Yazd for two months.
Me and my wife have lived with each other for 1 years.
We have lived in this apartment for 19 years.
She has been my classmate for 3 years.
البته کلمات already ،just و yet از علائم مشخصه ی ماضی نقلی هستند.
I haven't asked him yet (=but I will) .
I havn't done my homework yet.
I havn't gone to Mecca yet.
I have just travelled to Yazd for two months.
John's just told me that he's getting married.
I have just eaten Hamberger for two times.
I have already read Dr.Shariati's books.
I have already eaten oyster.
I have already gone to ski.
طرز منفی وسوالی کردن حال کامل:
چون این زمان همیشه با افعال کمکی (have) و یا (has) برای سوم شخص مفرد همراه است لذا برای منفی کردن بعد از افعال کمکی کلمه ی (not) را گذاشته و برای سوالی کردن (have) و یا (has) را به جمله آورده می شود.
Have you eaten Lazania?
Have you finished your homework?
Have you seen 'Ghaveh Talkh'?
Have you played Santor?
I haven't lived here for years.
I havn't checked www.salamzaban.com yet.
I havn't gone to Charmahalo Bakhtiari.
I havn't seen her.
I havn't won the game.
- She has worked in library since 1359.