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مقاله چگونه ریاضیان را مطالعه کنیم ؟ ریاضیات دانشگاهی و دبیرستانی How to Study Mathematics

نویسنده :M R
تاریخ:جمعه 21 تیر 1392-08:11 ق.ظ


How is college mathematics different from high school math?

چگونه ریاضیات دانشگاهی با ریاضیات دبیرستانی متفاوت است ؟

In high school mathematics much of your time was spent learning algorithms and manipulative techniques which you were expected to be able to apply in certain well-defined situations. This limitation of material and expectations for your performance has probably led you to develop study habits which were appropriate for high school mathematics but may be insufficient for college mathematics. This can be a source of much frustration for you and for your instructors. My object in writing this essay is to help ease this frustration by describing some study strategies which may help you channel your abilities and energies in a productive direction.

The first major difference between high school mathematics and college mathematics is the amount of emphasis on what the student would call theory---the precise statement of definitions and theorems and the logical processes by which those theorems are established. To the mathematician this material, together with examples showing why the definitions chosen are the correct ones and how the theorems can be put to practical use, is the essence of mathematics. A course description using the term ``rigorous'' indicates that considerable care will be taken in the statement of definitions and theorems and that proofs will be given for the theorems rather than just plausibility arguments. If your approach is to go straight to the problems with only cursory reading of the ``theory'' this aspect of college math will cause difficulties for you....

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مقاله انگلیسی در مورد ماه مبارک رمضان essay about ramadan month

نویسنده :M R
تاریخ:دوشنبه 17 تیر 1392-09:55 ب.ظ

During Ramadan the believers get busy seeking Allah’s mercy, forgiveness, and protection from Hellfire. This is the month for renewing our commitment and re-establishing our relationship with our Creator. It is the spring season for goodness and virtues when righteousness blossoms throughout the Muslim communities. "If we combine all the blessings of the other eleven months, they would not add up to the blessings of Ramadan," said the great scholar and reformer Shaikh Ahmed Farooqi (Mujaddad Alif Thani). It offers every Muslim an opportunity to strengthen his Iman, purify his heart and soul, and to remove the evil effects of the sins committed by him.

"Anyone who fasts during this month with purity of belief and with expectation of a good reward (from his Creator), will have his previous sins forgiven," said Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam. "Anyone who stands in prayers during its nights with purity of belief and expectation of a reward, will have his previous sins forgiven." As other ahadith tell us, the rewards for good deeds are multiplied manifold during Ramadan.

Along with the possibility of a great reward, there is the risk of a terrible loss. If we let any other month pass by carelessly, we just lost a month. If we do the same during Ramadan, we have lost everything. The person who misses just one day’s fast without a legitimate reason, cannot really make up for it even if he were to fast everyday for the rest of his life. And of the three persons that Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam cursed, one is the unfortunate Muslim who finds Ramadan in good health but does not use the opportunity to seek Allah’s mercy.

One who does not fast is obviously in this category, but so also is the person who fasts and prays but makes no effort to stay away from sins or attain purity of the heart through the numerous opportunities offered by Ramadan. The Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, warned us: "There are those who get nothing from their fast but hunger and thirst. There are those who get nothing from their nightly prayers but loss of sleep."

Those who understood this, for them Ramadan was indeed a very special month. In addition to fasting, mandatory Salat, and extra Travih Salat, they spent the whole month in acts of worship like voluntarySalatTilawa (recitation of Qur’an), Dhikr etc. After mentioning that this has been the tradition of the pious people of this Ummah throughout the centuries, Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi notes: " I have seen with my own eyes such ulema and mashaikh who used to finish recitation of the entire Qur’an everyday during Ramadan. They spent almost the entire night in prayers. They used to eat so little that one wondered how they could endure all this. These greats valued every moment of Ramadan and would not waste any of it in any other pursuit…Watching them made one believe the astounding stories of Ibada and devotion of our elders recorded by history."

This emphasis on these acts of worship may sound strange --- even misplaced --- to some. It requires some explanation. We know that the term Ibada (worship and obedience) in Islam applies not only to the formal acts of worship and devotion like Salat , Tilawa, and Dhikr, but it also applies to worldly acts when performed in obedience to Shariah and with the intention of pleasing Allah. Thus a believer going to work is performing Ibada when he seeks Halal income to discharge his responsibility as a bread-winner for the family. However a distinction must be made between the two. The first category consists of direct Ibada, acts that are required for their own sake. The second category consists of indirect Ibada --- worldly acts that become Ibada through proper intention and observation of Shariah. While the second category is important for it extends the idea of Ibada to our entire life, there is also a danger because by their very nature these acts can camouflage other motives. (Is my going to work really Ibada or am I actually in the rat race?). Here the direct Ibada comes to the rescue. Through them we can purify our motives, and re-establish our relationship with Allah.

Islam does not approve of monasticism. It does not ask us to permanently isolate ourselves from this world, since our test is in living here according to the Commands of our Creator. But it does ask us to take periodic breaks from it. The mandatory Salat (five daily prayers) is one example. For a few minutes every so many hours throughout the day, we leave the affairs of this world and appear before Allah to remind ourselves that none but He is worthy of worship and of our unfaltering obedience. Ramadan takes this to the next higher plane, providing intense training for a whole month.

This spirit is captured in I’tikaf, a unique Ibada associated with Ramadan, in which a person gives up all his normal activities and enters a mosque for a specific period. There is great merit in it and every Muslim community is encouraged to provide at least one person who will perform I’tikaf for the last ten days of Ramadan. But even those who cannot spare ten days are encouraged to spend as much time in the mosque as possible.

Through direct Ibada we "charge our batteries"; the indirect ones allow us to use the power so accumulated in driving the vehicle of our life. Ramadan is the month for rebuilding our spiritual strength. 



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seven Kinds Of Enviromental Pollution (مقاله در مورد انواع آلودگی های زیست محیطی)

نویسنده :M R
تاریخ:چهارشنبه 5 تیر 1392-12:48 ب.ظ

Can you name all 7 kinds of pollution?


 

There are actually SEVEN different kinds of environmental pollution. Most people can name air, water and land...do you know the other four? Or examples of what constitutes actual pollution in each category?

Listed below are each kind and examples to help you understand just how we can affect the environment and each other.

Air Pollution

factory smoke stack polluting the air with emissions


According to the dictionary, air pollution is the contamination of air by smoke and harmful gases, mainly oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen.

Some examples of air pollution include:

  • Exhuast fumes from vehicles
  • The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil or gas
  • Harmful off-gasing from things such as paint, plastic production and so on
  • Radiation spills or nuclear accidents

 

Land Pollution

plastic water bottles and litter covering a polluted beach


Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's surface caused by a misuse of resources and improper disposal of waste.

Some examples of land pollution include:

  • Litter found on the side of the road
  • Illegal dumping in natural habitats
  • Oil spills that happen inland
  • The use of pesticides and other farming chemicals
  • Damage and debris caused from unsustainable mining and logging practices
  • Radiation spills or nuclear accidents

Land pollution is responsible for damage done to natural habitat of animals, deforestation and damage done to natural resources, and the general ugly-ing up of our communities.

Light Pollution

more stars from less light pollution


Light pollution is the brightening of the night sky inhibiting the visibility of stars and planets by the use of improper lighting of communities.

Some examples of what causes light pollution:

  • Street lamps that shine light in all directions, instead of with a hood to point light downward toward the street.
  • Unnecessary lights, especially around the home

Light pollution uses more energy (by shining more light up instead of down), may affect human health and our sleep cycles and most importantly, corrupts our kids telescopes and their curiosity.

Noise Pollution

noise pollution from construction


Noise pollution is any loud sounds that are either harmful or annoying to humans and animals.

Some exmaples of noise pollution:

  • Airplanes, helicopters and motor vehicles
  • Construction or demolition noise
  • Human activities such as sporting events or concerts

Noise pollution is disruptive to humans' stress levels, may be harmful to unborn babies, and drives animals away, causing nervousness and decreasing their ability to hear prey or predators.

Thermal Pollution

warm lake water from thermal pollution


Thermal pollution is the increase of temperature caused by human activity.

  • Warmer lake water from nearby manufacturing (using cool water to cool the plant and then pump it back into the lake)
  • Included in thermal pollution should also be the increase in temperatures in areas with lots of concrete or vehicles, generally in cities

These kinds of environmental pollution can cause aquatic life to suffer or die due to the increased temperature, can cause discomfort to communities dealing with higher temperatures and can even affect plant-life in and around the area.

Visual Pollution

visual pollution of billboards


Visual pollution is what you would call anything unattractive or visualiing damaging to the nearby landscape. This tends to be a highly subjective topic, as we all find different things attractive and unattractive.

Some examples of visual pollution:

  • Skyscrapers might block the view of a mountain
  • Graffiti or carving on trees, rocks or other natural landscapes
  • Billboards, litter, abandoned homes and junkyards could also be considered among three kins of environmental pollution

Mostly visual kinds of environmental pollution are annoying, although some may say they are also depressing (such as when they can't see a view through a billboard).

When a man throws an empty cigarette package from an automobile, he is liable to a fine of $50. When a man throws a billboard across a view, he is richly rewarded. - Pat Brown

Water Pollution

river water polluted by cow manure runoff


Photo Source: Alan Liefting

Water pollution is the contamination of any body of water (lakes, groundwater, oceans, etc).

Some examples of water pollution:

  • Raw sewage running into lake or streams
  • Industrial waste spills contaminating groundwater
  • Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
  • Illegal dumping of substances, or items in bodies of water
  • Biological contamination, such as bacteria growth

 

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